Spain and the United States are Allies, strategic partners, and friends. Our bilateral relationship is based on deep historical ties, shared democratic values, and a common vision for addressing global challenges. Spain and the United States are committed to upholding peace and security, protecting the planet’s climate for future generations, promoting democracy and human rights, and enhancing economic prosperity around the world. To affirm our commitment to working closely together to advance these goals, the President of the Government of Spain, Pedro Sánchez Pérez Castejón, and the President of the United States of America, Joseph R. Biden, Jr., on the occasion of President Biden’s visit to Spain on June 28-30, 2022, have reached the following understandings:
Reinforcing multilateral responses to transatlantic and global challenges
1. Spain and the United States condemn Russia’s unjustified and unprovoked war of choice against Ukraine, which has fundamentally altered the global strategic environment. This aggression constitutes the most direct threat to transatlantic security and global stability since the end of the Cold War. Russia’s actions also threaten the food security of some of the most vulnerable people around the world. Spain and the United States intend to continue working together, along and with other partners and allies, including the rest of the EU and the G7, to support the government and the people of Ukraine and to hold Russia accountable for its violations of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, including gross violations of international law by targeting civilians with violence, and conflict-related sexual violence. Spain and the United States also reiterate their strong support for Ukraine’s determination to choose its own future.
2. Spain and the United States are committed to defending the rules-based international order, which has been the foundation for preserving our security and advancing our prosperity over the past seven decades. We are fully committed to the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We intend to strengthen international and multilateral institutions to promote strong, sustainable, and inclusive economic growth, defend democratic governance, and advance solutions to global challenges. We stand united in our determination to address challenges to that international order. In this regard we continue to encourage China to uphold its commitments within the rules-based international order, to contribute to international security, and to cooperate in the provision of global public goods, including on climate change, biodiversity and gender equality.
Strengthening defense cooperation
3. The United States and Spain recognize the central importance of the NATO Alliance in ensuring transatlantic peace and security. As NATO Allies for 40 years, Spain and the United States are steadfastly committed to providing NATO with ready forces and capabilities, strengthening their transatlantic ties, and ensuring a 360-degree approach to security, particularly by enhancing the relationship with mutual partners, such as the European Union. The Madrid Summit hosted by Spain will ensure that NATO is united behind a new Strategic Concept guiding the Alliance’s approach towards strategic competitors and transnational threats, and that NATO’s military and political activities are resourced to address a more dangerous security environment.
4. Spain and the United States underline their commitment to the U.S.-Spain Agreement on Defense Cooperation signed in 1988, which, together with the shared use of Spain’s bases in Rota and Morón, is an essential piece of the bilateral defense cooperation between the two countries. Spain and the United States intend to expand their defense cooperation through the permanent stationing of additional U.S. naval vessels in Rota. The two countries intend to hold regular meetings within the framework of the bilateral High-Level Defense Group to strengthen defense cooperation.
Defending democracy, human rights, and gender equality
5. Spain and the United States share the fundamental values of support for freedom, equity and equality, democracy, and the rule of law. Both countries reaffirm their commitment to a foreign policy guided by the defense of human rights, especially the rights of women and vulnerable populations, such as people living in poverty, members of racially or ethnically marginalized groups, LGBTQI+ persons, members of religious minority groups, persons with disabilities, refugees, migrants, internally displaced persons, older adults, children, gender non-conforming persons, and trafficking victims.
6. The United States and Spain underscore the importance of promoting gender equity and equality globally. Both countries intend to work together to promote policies and initiatives that advance the rights of women and girls, including through the Women, Peace, and Security agenda. As underscored during this Summit for Democracy Year of Action, they are committed to cooperation in strengthening democratic governance and the protection and promotion of human rights throughout the world, particularly with the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean where the United States and Spain both have deep and enduring affiliations.
Intensifying collaboration on justice and security issues
7. The United States and Spain intend to maintain and build upon their strong law enforcement cooperation, including with respect to extradition and mutual legal assistance. They plan to reinforce their collaboration in the fight against terrorism, cybercrime, drug trafficking, and trafficking in persons. They intend to strengthen cybersecurity cooperation to increase national resilience to cyber-attacks, promote responsible state behavior in cyberspace, and counter malicious cyber activity from nation states and criminal actors.
8. The United States and Spain will continue to work together to strengthen counterterrorism cooperation at the bilateral level and internationally. They also will work to curb the abuse of new information and communication technologies by terrorists, violent extremists, and authoritarian regimes.
Promoting safe, orderly, and regular migration
9. Both countries intend to collaborate on a comprehensive approach in the management of irregular migration flows, ensuring the just and humane treatment of migrants. Both countries also plan to coordinate efforts to address the root causes of irregular migration and work to strengthen legal pathways, with a particular focus on the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Spain and the United States likewise recognize the importance of ongoing cooperation in response to the challenges of irregular migration in the North Africa region.
Fighting climate change and increasing energy security
10. Spain and the United States recognize that the climate crisis is one of the most serious challenges of our time. Both countries stress the urgent need to increase global climate action to ensure that deep reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions are achieved by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050. In this light, they commit to pursuing a climate-smart recovery that strengthens biodiversity.
11. Both countries are committed to developing joint strategies to boost climate action in low and middle-income countries and sectoral strategies to accelerate the deployment of clean and renewable energy and the promotion of just transition to decarbonized and circular economies. They recognize the need to reach the Paris Agreement goals, including to accelerate global efforts to make financial flows consistent with low greenhouse gas emissions and climate resilient development. Both countries also underscore the importance of making continued progress towards the collective goal to mobilize annually 100 billion U.S. dollars for climate action in developing countries. They recognize the urgency of addressing methane in line with the Global Methane Pledge, improving adaptation to the impacts of climate change, and promoting a climate resilient development, especially in the most vulnerable countries.
12. The United States and Spain stress the importance of joint action to improve Europe’s energy security and reduce dependence on Russian fossil fuels. Both countries are committed to collaboration to increase the geographical diversification of energy sources, especially natural gas, to promote renewable energies and develop new vectors such as offshore wind-power and renewable hydrogen, to deploy smart technologies that promote energy efficiency, and to secure supply chains for the critical minerals essential to the energy transition.
Expanding cooperation in commercial and economic matters
13. Spain and the United States are committed to strengthening the rules-based multilateral trade system to ensure fair competition and legal certainty. Both countries are committed to promoting the development of trade and investment, including entrepreneurship, small- and medium-sized businesses, and innovation as the basis for strong, sustainable, inclusive economic growth that creates quality employment in both countries and incorporates diverse and excluded groups, while ensuring adequate protection for digital economy workers. They are committed to transatlantic cooperation to resolve trade, economic and technological differences; promote energy security and sustainability; and build resilient supply chains that are transparent, secure, sustainable, and diverse. They are committed to ending the race to the bottom on corporate taxation through the swift implementation of the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework’s Two-Pillar Solution.
Boosting digital, scientific, and technological cooperation
14. The United States and Spain defend a digital transformation based on a shared respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and democratic values, on reducing the digital divide, on preventing and addressing the disproportionate effects of online forms of violence and abuse on women, children, and other marginalized groups, and on the implementation of mechanisms to safeguard these principles. They express the importance of coordinating actions to mitigate security risks in the digital environment, especially the importance of working with trusted suppliers, and cooperating in defining and utilizing international standards, including open standards, and best practices that contribute to reliable and secure digitalization. They express their commitment to cooperation initiatives in the transatlantic framework, such as the EU-U.S. Trade and Technology Council, as a tool for addressing challenges in the trade, economic and technological sphere.
15. Spain and the United States intend to continue promoting joint science, space, and innovation initiatives carried out by research organizations, universities, and private companies in all fields of space and science, including through scientific-technological initiatives of the European Union. Spain and the United States plan to encourage industrial initiatives to enhance open strategic autonomy, especially in critical raw materials.
16. Both countries aim to intensify cultural and educational exchanges through bilateral programs such as the Fulbright Program, the Spain-USA Foundation, and the U.S.-Spain Council.
Strengthening political cooperation
17. Spain and the United States intend to continue high-level consultations between the two governments. The Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation and the U.S. Secretary of State intend to continue their regular political consultations, and the Spanish Secretary of State for Foreign and Global Affairs and the U.S. Deputy Secretary of State intend to continue their regular contact. In addition, regular region- and issue-focused meetings should take place on topics of mutual interest to include Latin America and the Caribbean, the Maghreb, the Sahel, China and the Indo-Pacific, Russia, multilateral affairs, migration, science and technology, and cybersecurity.
Looking to the future
18. In the spirit of this joint declaration, Spain and the United States intend to continue strengthening their bilateral relations, expanding on these understandings as needed. As Spain prepares for its presidency of the Council of the European Union in the second half of 2023, the two countries intend to prioritize cooperation on foreign policy, security, defense, and economic issues as they relate to the EU. Spain and the United States look forward to working together to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century and to seizing opportunities for deepening their cooperation so that it provides security and prosperity to citizens on both sides of the Atlantic.
Declaración conjunta entre el Reino de España y los Estados Unidos de América