Her dedication and effort took her to Antarctica in 1984, becoming the first woman to lead a scientific base on that continent. Her leadership and determination were fundamental in convincing the authorities of the importance of establishing a Spanish base in Antarctica, which finally materialized with the installation of the Juan Carlos I base in 1987-1988. Throughout her career she contributed not only to scientific research, but also to opening paths for women in science and spreading the importance of Antarctica for the knowledge of the ocean.
Pascale Ehrenfreund (Vienna, June 24, 1960) is an Austrian astrobiologist. An astrobiologist by training and PhD in astrophysics, Ehrenfreund has contributed for three decades as principal investigator, co-investigator and team leader to ESA and NASA astronomical and planetary missions, as well as experiments in low Earth orbit and on the International Space Station.
She is currently president of the International Space University in Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France and a research professor of space policy and international affairs at the Space Policy Institute of George Washington University in Washington DC. The asteroid "9826 Ehrenfreund 2114 T-3" is named after her.
Felisa Martín Bravo (San Sebastián, June 11, 1898 - Madrid, October 29, 1979)
In 1922, she obtained her degree in Physics at the University of Madrid and joined the research group of physicist Julio Palacios at the Laboratory of Physical Research (LIF). She was the first woman researcher at LIF and also the first to obtain a PhD in Physics in the country, an achievement she reached in 1926 with a thesis on X-ray diffraction to analyze crystalline structures.
In 1929, she joined the State Meteorological Agency, being the first woman to be part of it until 1935. She continued her research with Julio Palacios at the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Central University of Madrid. In 1932, she moved to Cambridge University to do research in X-ray spectrography and atmospheric sounding.
In 1937, she became director of the Igeldo Meteorological Observatory. After the Spanish Civil War, she was readmitted to the State Meteorological Agency and became the only woman meteorologist until 1960, being one of the few non-military positions in the institution. She continued to work in meteorology until her retirement.
Alexandra Adler (September 24, 1901, Vienna - January 4, 2001, New York)
Austrian neurologist. Her father, Alfred Adler, was a founding figure in psychoanalysis alongside Freud and Jung. After completing his medical studies at the University of Vienna in 1926, Adler specialized in psychiatry and moved to the United States in 1935. In this country she took up a position as an instructor in neurology at Harvard Medical School. Later in 1938 she became medical director of the Alfred Adler Clinic in New York, and from 1946 she joined the department of psychiatry at New York University Medical School, where she became a professor in 1969. Alexandra Adler's main contribution to the field of neuroscience is the study of post-traumatic stress. She is also considered one of the greatest experts in the work done by her father, in fields related to child education or on the borderline between neurosis and psychosis, which she systematized and catalogued, creating the so-called "Adlerian techniques" to treat neurological problems, such as schizophrenia, neurosis and personality disorders.