Bandera de Naciones Unidas
United Nations

The Organization of the United Nations (UN) was founded on 26 June 1945, when representatives from 50 countries signed the UN Charter in San Francisco (USA), with the aim of preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. These countries expressed their commitment to accepting the obligations laid down in the Charter, which establishes the basic principles of international relations. ​

La Carta Fundacional entró en vigor el 24 de octubre de 1945, tras ser ratificada por China, Francia, URSS, Reino Unido y EEUU y la mayoría de los signatarios.

Nacida de las cenizas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la ONU se ha convertido en el marco de la gran mayoría de las actividades diplomáticas y humanitarias del planeta. Actualmente cuenta con 193 países miembros.
 
España ingresó en la ONU el 14 de diciembre de 1955 y ha sido miembro electo del Consejo de Seguridad en cuatro ocasiones, esto es, aproximadamente, una vez cada diez años. De acuerdo con esta lógica, nuestro país ha presentado su candidatura para acceder nuevamente al Consejo en el bienio 2015-2016. A lo largo de estos años, y muy especialmente tras el advenimiento de la democracia, España se ha involucrado activamente en esta organización, reiterando la necesidad de que la comunidad internacional se asiente sobre los pilares de la seguridad, el desarrollo y el respeto de los derechos humanos, de manera que resuelva de forma concertada y solidaria los grandes desafíos de nuestro tiempo.

España ocupa el noveno puesto en la escala de contribuciones financieras al Presupuesto Ordinario de las Naciones Unidas y es miembro del Grupo de Ginebra, formado por los doce mayores contribuyentes, que realiza un seguimiento exhaustivo de las cuestiones administrativas y presupuestarias en el sistema de las Naciones Unidas, incluyendo sus Agencias especializadas y Organizaciones Internacionales Técnicas. Si se tienen en cuenta las aportaciones realizadas al conjunto del sistema de las Naciones Unidas (suma de contribuciones obligatorias y voluntarias, además de la aportación a las Operaciones de Mantenimiento de la Paz) España ocuparía el sexto lugar. 

  • Structure of the United Nations
    Risen from the ashes of the Second World War, the United Nations, together with more than 30 affiliated organizations, known collectively as the United Nations System, work together to provide solutions to the problems of humankind. The UN and its system of organizations work towards advancing respect for human rights, protecting the environment, combating illnesses, promoting development and fighting against poverty.
  • The United Nations System
    The International Monetary Fund, the World Bank Group and other independent organizations, known as "specialized agencies", are linked to the UN through cooperation agreements. All of these organizations have their own governing bodies, budgets, and secretariats. Together with the United Nations, they are known as the United Nations System, and provide technical assistance and other forms of support in almost every economic and social area.
  • International Criminal Court
    The International Criminal Court (ICC) was created, at the UN's initiative, on 17 July 1998 with the adoption of the Rome Statute, which entered into force on 1 July 2002. The birth of an independent jurisdiction marks a historic step forward in the universalization of human rights. The ICC is the first permanent international court established to try the perpetrators of crimes against humanity, genocide, or war crimes
  • Sustainable Development Goals
    The United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in September 2105, a plan of action for people, the planet and prosperity, which also seeks to strengthen universal peace and access to justice. The Member States of the United Nations approved a resolution in which the major challenge to the world at this time is acknowledged as being the eradication of poverty and claimed that, without this, sustainable development cannot be achieved.
  • Alliance of Civilizations
    The Alliance of Civilizations is a United Nations initiative, co-sponsored by Spain and Turkey, aimed at promoting dialogue and cooperation between different communities, cultures and civilizations, and building bridges between peoples and persons, over and above their cultural or religious differences, through the implementation of a series of specific actions aimed at conflict prevention and peacebuilding.
  • UN Women
    UN Women is the organization's newest entity to date. It was created by the UN General Assembly on 2 July 2010, by a resolution that was approved unanimously by all of the Member States, with the goal of facilitating gender equality and promoting women's participation in decision-making and access to power at all levels.
  • Peaceful Settlement of Disputes
    Peaceful settlement of disputes has the aim of contributing “to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war”, a goal enshrined in the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations. Chapter VI of the Charter is devoted entirely to “pacific settlement of disputes”, establishing a series of main objectives and methods. Among these, mediation is a key activity.
  • Peacekeeping Operations
    The UN peacekeeping forces, often called "Blue Helmets", were born in November 1956, although the first UN peacekeeping mission was launched in the Middle East in 1948. Their function is to control disputes between countries or communities, avoiding confrontation, while negotiations are underway to put an end to the conflict.
  • United Nations Reform
    Since its creation in 1945, the United Nations has had to adapt to the changes occurring in the world, above all, during the last decades of the 20th century. Some of these changes, such as the end of Cold War, the polarization of the North-South divide, globalization and the emergence of new international actors—such as the European Union—have led to a complex reform process within the UN Organization.

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