Global issues

Globalisation is a historical process involving several sides (political, economic, cultural and environmental) which offers great opportunities to move forward within global development. Trade, financial flows and the modernisation of electronic communications have fostered a growing integration of economies around the world

​But globalisation does not progress uniformly. According to a study by the International Monetary Fund, some countries have fitted in the world economy faster than others; those that could do so have registered a faster economic growth and have managed to reduce poverty. The IMF argues that most of the countries of East Asia, which were among the poorest in the world 40 years ago, have become dynamic and prosperous countries by means of the implementation of policies of openness to the outside world. In addition, as living conditions improved, they advanced in their democratic process. Economically, they progressed on issues such as the environment and working conditions.

However, opportunities offered by globalisation involve, as a counterpart, the risk of the volatility of capital flows and the risk of deterioration of the social, economic and environmental situation. According to the IMF, for all countries to benefit from globalisation, the international community should strive to help the poorest countries to integrate into the global economy, supporting reforms that strengthen economies and the global financial system in order to achieve a faster growth and ensure the reduction of poverty.
  • Cybersecurity

    Information and communication technologies are part of our everyday lives. Their development has generated a new way of relating to each other, where the speed and ease of exchanging data and ideas has eliminated the barriers of distance and time. Cyberspace has blurred borders, making users participants in a process of globalisation that offers new opportunities, but also new challenges, risks and threats.

  • Spain in the Globalised World
    The international financial and economic crisis of recent years evinced the high degree of interdependence of the world economies, whose activity transcends national borders in an increasingly globalised world. Although in times of crisis globalisation poses a risk, theorists of multilateral organisations defend it as an engine of development, something that has been key in the Spanish case. This country has gone from being the most closed European economy during the first part of the Franco's dictatorship to be among the first economies in the world
  • Energy Security
    In energy terms, the world continues to depend on fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal, raw materials that are in the hands of just a few countries; therefore, entering into conflict with them could jeopardize supply for a significant part of the population. On the other hand, renewable energies, such as water, sun and ocean waves, can be found the world over, although their exploitation requires expensive technology, which prevents countries with fewer economic resources from using them to generate electricity, despite the fact that they are right there, at their fingertips.
  • Illicit Trafficking and Organized Crime
    The United Nations report “A more secure world: our shared responsibility”, presented in 2004 by the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, identified transnational organized crime as one of the six greater threats to global stability. Over these last years, transnational organized crime has become a more menacing problem. The UN and a number of regional organizations are working to curb money laundering, drug trafficking, prostitution and arms trafficking.
  • Migratory Flows
    In the European Union, the number of legal non-EU citizens is more than 25 million, but there are some 10 million undocumented persons. In 2002, the EU-15 approved the Comprehensive Plan to Combat Illegal Immigration, in order to monitor visas and improve border controls. In June 2003, the Seville European Council established a calendar to create a common policy, and in that same year, the European Commission approved the project for the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (FRONTEX).
  • International sanctions
    International sanctions have become a key element in contemporary international relations. Since the international crisis struck, States have increasingly opted to resort to adopting international sanctions as an alternative to the use of armed force.

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