Globalization

​Globalization is a historical process with many facets: political, economic, cultural and environmental; it offers great opportunities for advancing in world development. Trade, financial flows and the modernization of electronic communications have led to the increasing integration of the world's economies.

  • Spain in a Globalized World
    The international financial and economic crisis of recent years has highlighted the high level of interdependence of the world's economies, whose activity goes beyond national borders in an increasingly globalized world. In times of crisis, globalization entails a risk, since it can delay the recovery of activity and jobs; however, theorists from multilateral organizations defend it as an engine for development. It has certainly been key in the case of Spain, which has gone from being the most closed European economy during the first part of the Franco dictatorship, to being among the world's leading economies.
  • Markets and Financial Flows
    The explosion of the financial crisis in the United States in 2008, and its rapid spread to the rest of the world, underscored the high level of interconnectedness of the markets, which are linked together by the major arteries of financial flows. Globalization has made billions of euros move the world over, from country to country, every day. This didn't use to be the case.
  • Energy Security
    In energy terms, the world continues to depend on fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal, raw materials that are in the hands of just a few countries; therefore, entering into conflict with them could jeopardize supply for a significant part of the population. On the other hand, renewable energies, such as water, sun and ocean waves, can be found the world over, although their exploitation requires expensive technology, which prevents countries with fewer economic resources from using them to generate electricity, despite the fact that they are right there, at their fingertips.
  • Illicit Trafficking and Organized Crime
    The United Nations report “A more secure world: our shared responsibility”, presented in 2004 by the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, identified transnational organized crime as one of the six greater threats to global stability. Over these last years, transnational organized crime has become a more menacing problem. The UN and a number of regional organizations are working to curb money laundering, drug trafficking, prostitution and arms trafficking.
  • Migratory Flows
    In the European Union, the number of legal non-EU citizens is more than 25 million, but there are some 10 million undocumented persons. In 2002, the EU-15 approved the Comprehensive Plan to Combat Illegal Immigration, in order to monitor visas and improve border controls. In June 2003, the Seville European Council established a calendar to create a common policy, and in that same year, the European Commission approved the project for the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (FRONTEX).
  • International Sanctions
    Pursuant to Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, the Security Council may adopt enforcement measures to maintain or restore international peace and security. These measures encompass sanctions, whether economic or of another nature, which do not involve the use of armed force, as well as international military intervention. Moreover, within the framework of its Common Foreign and Security Policy, the European Union applies restrictive measures or sanctions (both terms used interchangeably) pursuant to Article 11 of the Treaty on European Union, whether on an autonomous EU basis, or to implement UN Security Council resolutions.

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